Things You Should Know About Organic Synthesis Reactions

Organic synthesis reactions — the essence

The essence of organic synthesis reactions is actually that of the organic chemistry reactions.

The task of organic synthesis is to use known or possible chemical reactions to form C-C bonds or C-heterobonds, thereby linking two or more molecules or ions. Organic chemical reactions can be divided into three types: polar reactions, synergistic reactions, and free radical reactions. Synergistic reactions and free radical reactions are also called non-polar reactions. Non-polar reactions can be carried out using the one-pot method’, while polar reactions need to be carried out step by step.Things You Should Know About Organic Synthesis Reactions (2)

The essence of the polar reaction of organic chemical reactions is the combination of negative and positive atoms in the molecule. The negative electricity of an atom can be a negative charge or a lone electron pair; the positive electricity of an atom can be a positive charge or an empty orbit. The greater the density of negative and positive charges, the higher the reactivity, but high-density negatively charged atoms are usually combined with high-density positively charged atoms, and low-density negatively charged atoms are combined with low-density positively charged atoms. If there are two oppositely charged atoms in the molecule at the same time, a cyclization reaction will occur. If there are two kinds of atoms with the same charge in the molecule, side reactions will easily occur when they are combined with the oppositely charged atoms in another molecule.

Therefore, when remembering organic chemistry reactions, it is only necessary to distinguish which atom in the molecule is positively charged and which atom is negatively charged. There is no need to memorize the name of the reaction or to care too much about the types of nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions.

Organic synthesis reactions — post-processing issues

In organic synthesis reactions, the post-processing problem is often ignored by most people. They think that only by finding the right synthesis method, the synthesis task can be multiplied with half the effort. This is true. The correct synthesis method is important, but the task of custom chemical synthesis is to obtain a fairly pure product. Any reaction that does not have a 100% yield will always be accompanied by more or less side reactions, resulting in more or less impurities. After the reaction is completed, the huge problem facing is the separation of pure product from the reaction mixture system. The purpose of post-processing is to use the best possible method to accomplish this task.

The basic knowledge needed for solving post-processing problems of organic synthesis reactions is the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds, and post-processing is the specific application of these properties. Of course, we must first do the reaction well and minimize the occurrence of side reactions, so as to reduce the pressure of post-processing. Post-processing is still a test of a person’s basic skills. There are different solutions for post-processing according to the purpose of the reaction. If in the laboratory, the purpose of obtaining pure compounds is to make various spectra, then the solution is simple. The method to obtain pure compounds is nothing more than preparing chromatography and other methods, However, if it is for industrial production purposes, the solution is complicated. Try to use simple and low-cost methods as much as possible. If you still use the method in the laboratory, the chemical synthesis companies will lose money.